The Rehabilitation Journal https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ <p>The Rehabilitation Journal (TRJ) is an international multidisciplinary peer-review journal published biannually <strong>(Quarterly after December 2021)</strong> in English. TRJ is the official publication of the Health Education Research Foundation (HERF), which is non profit organizaton registered with government of Pakistan under society registration act 1860.</p> <p>The aim of TRJ is to publish articles about all aspects Rehabilitation Sciences and to promote excellence in education, scientific research, clinical practice, health policy, and administration.TRJ publishes two issues in a year and welcomes manuscripts from all over the world in the field of Medical Rehabilitation but not limited to;</p> <ul> <li>Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation</li> <li>Neurological Rehabilitation</li> <li>Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation</li> <li>Sports Rehabilitation</li> <li>PsychosocialRehabilitation</li> <li>Speech and Language Rehabilitation</li> <li>Community Based Rehabilitation</li> </ul> <p>The overall goal of TRJ <em>is</em> to enhance the interrelationship of practice, research, and education to advance the field of Rehabilitation Sciences for the ultimate benefit of the patient and the field.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> admin@trjournal.org (Huraim Ahmed Awan) danish.rauf@herf.org.pk (Dr Danish Raouf) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 COVID-19: A Lesson / An Eye Opener https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/149 <p>The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to serious implications throughout the globe ranging from finance, education, social support to health. There is hardly any aspect left untouched by this fatality. It has also opened our eyes about unequal and unjust distribution of resources among the world where the deprived have seen the worse scenarios. The developed nations tried to cope this situation with their assets while the rest have either suffered or have emerged even stronger.</p> <p>The major burden was definitely on the health services delivery and provision, where the scares means from equipment to space and man power have all played their role. The pandemic has opened the eyes of health policy makers and service providers who were living in deception and have never been ready for certain contagion. We have come to know that the medical services are never enough to deal with similar situation. COVID-19 has taught us the skill of how to be prepared and fight in a worse situation but unfortunately, we have learned this after losing many precious lives.</p> <p>The changes in healthcare practices have also been modified. The infection control (IC) system which should have been a focus prior became a highlight after pandemic. The IC practices in hospitals (public and private sector) were not sufficient and adherence to them wasn’t observed either. Even the majority of services providers and heath care professionals weren’t aware of use of personal protective equipment (PPE); their use and sequences of donning and doffing, except for those working in intensive care units and isolation areas. Thanks to COVID-19 who taught us to be familiar with these things whether their use is un-common.</p> <p>COVID-19 has also been a guide for people in rehabilitation who are prime part of recovery from all illnesses including this pandemic. COVID-19 was found to be a cause of multiple complications i.e. pulmonary, cardiac, neurological, musculoskeletal, psychological and social. Attention was also diverted to recovery in all the mentioned aspects which led to provision and improvements in tertiary care setups with focus on rehabilitation as a mode of full recovery. The stakeholders have started to be more focused on improving the mental and physical aspects of disease along with the physiological.</p> <p>The rehabilitation and physical therapy services have not been spared from the pandemic. Where the physical therapy professionals were not ready and well trained to deal with contagious diseases and safety measures it put us in a bigger challenge. Many clinics and hospitals had scares availability of personnel protective equipment (PPE) which also lead to seriousness of situation. As for provision of physical therapy care direct contact with patients cannot be limited, and lack of knowledge on unavailability of PPE could put therapist’s or the patient’s life in danger.</p> <p>Covid-19 opened the eyes and importance of teaching safety measures and donning and doffing of PPEs was learned with appropriate sequence. Although the well-organized hospitals were also working as per global standard protocols had least difficulty dealing with such issues. The physical therapists are trained to deal with such emergencies and critical situations but not being exposed to a pandemic and emergency like this has made the suppression of such reflexes in practice. The therapist learned to manage patients with optimum precautions making sure that the quality of care is not compromised. Several tele-rehabilitation models have also been develop and practiced to encounter the issue.<sup>1, 2</sup></p> <p>Hence we would take COVID-19 as an eye opener and as taught to be fair in the division of global resources and be prepared for a disaster that doesn’t discriminate among developed and undeveloped nations. The efficient use of services and being aware of emergency and safe healthcare practices can save us from unpredictable disasters like COVID-19.</p> Nasir Sultan, Kiran Khushnood, Waqar Ahmed Awan Copyright (c) 2022 Kiran Khushnood, Nasir Sultan, Waqar Ahmed Awan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/149 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF FIFA 11+ PROGRAM ON SPEED, AGILITY, POWER AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG CRICKET PLAYERS https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/65 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The FIFA 11+ program is established protocol in the training of football players. Speed agility and power are also the crucial component of cricket performance. FIFA 11+ program may be the choice of training among cricketers<strong>. Objective: </strong>To determine the effects of FIFA 11+ program on speed, agility, power and quality of life among cricket players. <strong>Methods: </strong>A single blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted on n= 50 cricket players were recruited through non-probability convenient sampling technique from Pakistan sports board and coaching centre Lahore. The inclusion criteria were cricketers having age between 14 to 35 years and those never participated in FIFA 11+ program was enrolled in study. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups receiving six (6) sessions of Injury prevention program FIFA 11+ (Group A) and conventional stretching (Group B) respectively. The outcome measures were 30m sprint test for speed, T-drill test for agility, 5 jumps test for power and athlete Life Quality Scale. As the data was not normally distributed non-parametric tests were applied for with-in and between the group comparisons. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of participants was 20.19 <u>+</u> 2.796 years. Both groups showed statistically significant improvement (p&lt;0.001) in speed, agility, power, and quality of life. While comparing the groups, there was no significant difference (<em>p=0.264</em>) was observed in speed. But FIFA 11+ program showed more significant improvement in agility, power and quality of life as compare to conventional dynamic stretching group (p&lt;0.05) after 3 weeks of intervention. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>FIFA 11+ program can be recommended as an effective approach towards improving the agility, power, and quality of life of in cricket players.</p> Ammar Hameed, Muzna Munir, Haris Bin Tariq, Zainab Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Zainab hassan, Ammar hameed, Muzna Munir, haris bin tariq https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/65 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF INSPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING ON FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSIVE PATIENT https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/77 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Exercise intolerance is present even in the early stages of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with poor prognosis. Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and may contribute to exercise limitation. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in pulmonary hypertensive patient. <strong>Methodology</strong>: A randomized control trial was conducted at Services Hospital Lahore after approval from Medical Superintendent. A total of n=18 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups, both group received deep breathing exercise (DBE) and 2<sup>nd</sup> group received additionally Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) with pressure threshold Inspiratory muscle training device. All participants received 12 sessions in two weeks; the duration of each session was of 20 minutes. The outcome variables were functional capacity and quality of life (SF-36). In functional capacity, of the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), partial pressure of oxygen (SpO<sub>2</sub>), distance walk (6min walk test) and level of dyspnea were recorded The data was evaluated at baseline and after 12<sup>th</sup> session. <strong>Results<em>:</em></strong> The mean age of patients was 58.11±7.11 years, with 9 male and 9 female. After 2 weeks, the general health, social activities and energy were significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved in experimental group. But no significant difference (p≥0.05) was observed between the group regarding activity limitation, physical and emotional health items of quality of life (SF-36). When comparing the Blood pressure and heart rate, no significant difference was observed between the groups, after 2 weeks of intervention (p≥0.05). While SpO<sub>2</sub>,6 MWT and dyspnea score was significantly (p&lt;0.05) improved in experimental group as compare to control group. <strong>Conclusion<em>:</em> </strong> The Deep breathing and inspiratory muscle training both are equally effective with respect to improving the quality of life but IMT is more efficient as compared to Deep breathing for improving dyspnea and it also improves the pulmonary functional and exercise capacity.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> breathing exercises, dyspnea, inspiratory muscle training, pulmonary hypertension, quality of life.</p> Shaher Bano, Fareeha Kausar, Sumera Amanat, Sidra Shafiq, Hafiza Neelam Muneeb, Qamar Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 Hafiza NEELAM Muneeb, Shaher Bano, Fareeha Kausar, Sumera Amanat, Sidra Shafiq, Qamar Mehmood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/77 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PREVALENCE OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG MIDDLE AGED ADULTS OF PAKISTAN https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/80 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and disabling constant Musculoskeletal Disorder that causes significant weight on individual, Health Care Systems, and social economy. With the maturing of the populace and the commonness of undesirable way of life practices, the predominance and disease burden of OA are expanding day by day.<strong> Objective: </strong>To find the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and quality of life among middle-aged adults.<strong> Methodology: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted at the major hospitals and physical therapy clinical setups of Pakistan from April to July 2019 (4 months) after approval of IRB/ERC (SRMCH/MS/20/12/41) Suleman Roshan medical college hospital, Tando Adam<strong>. </strong>The total sample was n=300 selected using non-probability convenience sampling. The middle-aged adults (40-65 years) having moderate to severe knee pain<strong>, </strong>both male and female were included. According to the American college of rheumatology the criteria for assessing OA by using history, physical examination, and radiographic findings: pain in the knee and one of following over 50 years of age, less than 30minutes of morning stiffness crepitus on active motion and osteophytes and quality of life assessed according to WHOQOL-100 score. The results of the study are presented as frequency, percentages, and mean ±SD. The data were analysed through SPSS 21.<strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the study participants (n=300) was a 48.96±6.804 year. The majority of the participants were female (n=208) and the remaining n=92 were male. The prevalence of OA in the middle aged adults (n=300) n=170 (56.7%). The significantly reduced QoL among patient having knee OA (37.19±23.22 ver 42.51±22.69, p&lt;0.05) as compare to those having knee pain without Knee OA.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of knee pain in middle-aged adults is high and their quality of life is moderately affected.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Knee, Middle-aged, Osteoarthritis, Prevalence, Quality of life.</p> Faisal Basheer Malik, Aamir Gul Memon, Saleh Shah, Danish Latif, Muhammad Faheem Afzal, Shoaib Ahmed Memon Copyright (c) 2022 Faisal Basheer Malik, Aamir Gul Memon, Saleh Shah, Danish Latif, Muhammad Faheem Afzal, Shoaib Ahmed Memon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/80 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTIVENESS OF ELONGATION LONGITUDINAUX AVEC DECOAPTION OSTEOARTICULAIRE IN CORRECTING FORWARD HEAD POSTURE https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/82 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Forward head posture, is a deviation of spinal vertebrae from their respective places, which causes anterior translation at head and gives a poking chin with associated sign and symptoms. Conventional physical therapy and manual therapy techniques are effective in correction of forward head posture. <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the effectiveness of Elongation Longitudinaux Avec Decoaption Ostéo Articulaire (ELDOA) in correcting forward head posture. <strong>Methodology</strong>: Single group Interrupted time series quasi experimental design was conducted in outpatient Department (OPD) of Islamabad Physiotherapy &amp; Rehabilitation Centre Bahria Town, from August 20 to January 21 consisting of n=44 male and female participants of 30 to 40 years age. All participants received three sessions per week for 4-weeks after selection through convenience sampling technique. The assessments were done at baseline, 1st, 4th and 12th post treatment day. The assessment was done using tragus to wall distance and shoulder to wall distance via measuring tape for forward head posture, cervical range of motions (ROMs) with inclinometer and pain using Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Data analysis was done via SPSS-22. Results: A total of n=21 male with the mean age of 35.96±3.22 years and 23 female with a mean age of 36.22±3.20 years were treated. The tragus to wall distance significantly improved (p&lt;0.05) from 16.55±0.4 to 12.69 ±0.3 cm, 17.57±0.4 to 13.76±0.4 in sitting and standing respectively with (p&lt;.05)and shoulder to wall distance improved from 13.65cm to 9.0 cm with (p&lt;.05) at post 12th treatment day. The Pain and Cervical ROMs also showed statistically significant improvement after 12<sup>th</sup> session (p&lt;.05). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Elongation Longitudinaux Avec Decoaption Ostéo Articulaire (ELDOA) exercises were found to be effective in the correction of forward head posture.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>:<strong> Keywords</strong>: ELDOA, Forward Head Posture. Flexibility,Neck pain.</p> Saira Waqar, Maria Khalid, Nandishah Khalid Copyright (c) 2022 saira Waqqar, Maria Khalid, Nandishah Khalid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/82 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DENIS BROWNE SPLINT SHOE, EXERCISE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH RECURRENCE CLUBFOOT IN CHILDREN https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/101 <p><a name="_Toc63252378"></a><strong> Background: </strong>Clubfoot is an intricate deformity of ankle and foot involving bony mal-alignment, adduction of forefoot, and hind-foot Varus, cavus, and equines caused by contracture of soft tissues<strong><sup>. </sup></strong>The many factor contribute to relapse of clubfoot, are neglected when advise the Proper pan of care. <strong> Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>To find the association of clubfoot recurrence with no proper exercise and improper fitting of Denis Browne splint <a name="_Toc63252380"></a>shoe.<strong> Materials &amp; </strong><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted at PIPOS Rehabilitation Service Program (PRSP), Peshawar. The data was collected from a sample of n=300 patients in Pakistan Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Science. The non-probability convenient sampling technique was used for data collection. The duration of the study was 6 months (April 2019 to October 2019). The male and female recurrent clubfoot children whose are either infant or till the age of 6 and registered in PRSP. The data collection was done through an international club foot registry form and self structured questionnaire. The results are presented in term of descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test was also performed to assess club foot and other variable association with each other. <a name="_Toc63252382"></a><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>The result showed n=110(37.3%) participants reported they had no proper fitting of Denis Browne Splint shoe (DBS) and n=97(32.3%) showed they underwent no proper exercise follow up. There was significant association of club foot recurrence with improper fitting of DBS (p&lt;0.001) and no proper exercises (p=0.02). <a name="_Toc63252383"></a><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The study indicated that without proper exercises and in appropriate fitting of DBS may lead to recurrence of club foot.</p> <p><a name="_Toc63252384"></a><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Congenital Talipes Equinovarus, Clubfoot, Denis Browne Splint, Ponseti method</p> Aqeel Ahmed Khan, Shoukat Hayat, Muhammad Ramzan, Sara Kafeel, Ejaz Asghar, Sumaira Khurshid Copyright (c) 2022 Aqeel Khan, Shoukat Hayat, Muhammad Ramzan, Sara Kafeel, Ejaz Asghar, Sumaira Khurshid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/101 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF PEDIATRIC DYSPHAGIA AWARENESS PROGRAMME ON NURSES https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/112 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pediatric dysphagia is a common consequence of many structural and neurological problems after birth. In a Health care setting, Nurses can only screen out pediatric dysphagia if they had knowledge of swallowing difficulties <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the impact of pediatric dysphagia awareness program among nurses. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A Quasi experimental study was conducted at Railway Hospital Rawalpindi hospital from January 2021till august 2021. The convenient sampling technique was used for data collection during the period of February 2021 till May 2021. The nurses having working experience of more than two years in pediatric ward. The total sample size was n= 19, out of which n= 14 were females and n= 5 were males. The study was conducted in two phases .In 1<sup>st</sup> phase, questionnaire was developed and the content validity for items &amp; content validity for scale was tabulated. In 2<sup>nd</sup> phase webinar of one hour was conducted and self- developed questionnaire was used for pre and post analysis. Analysis was done through SPSS 20. <strong>Results</strong>: Results of the current study indicates that, “There was a significant improvement in awareness of nurses about pediatric dysphagia after attending the webinar (96.055 <u>+</u> 11.8593) (117.227 <u>+</u>5.377, p&lt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Research study concluded that an awareness programme about pediatric dysphagia improved the knowledge of nurses working with pediatric population.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Awareness programme, nurses, speech therapist, pediatric dysphagia</p> Maryam Nadir Kiyani, Tehreem Ijaz, Shumaila Bibi Copyright (c) 2022 maryam nadir kiyani, Miss Tehreem Ijaz, Shumaila Bibi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/112 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARISON BETWEEN EFFECTS OF PASSIVE VERSUS SELF-MOBILIZATION OF SCIATIC NERVE IN PIRIFORMIS SYNDROME FOR RELIEVING PAIN AND IMPROVING HIP OUTCOMES https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/114 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Piriformis syndrome is disorder which is neuromuscular, caused by sciatic nerve compression and lead to compromised Hip functions. This problem, as well as the management for the restoration of hip functions need to addressed.<strong> Objective: </strong> To determine the effectiveness of passive mobilization versus self-mobilization in managing pain and improving quality of life in patients with Piriformis syndrome. <strong>Methodology: </strong>A quasi-experimental study was conducted at Imran Idrees Hospital Sialkot from April to October 2019. The simple random sampling was used to collect n=30 subjects with pain in the gluteal region from more than 2 months, both genders in age of 30-50 years were included. The Passive Sciatic Mobilization was given in one group, while other group was only taught the self-mobilization of the sciatic nerve along with home planThe Visual analogue scale and hip outcomes were measured at baseline, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week using International Hip Outcome Tool (IHOT) Repeated measurement ANOVA for within-group and independent-sample t-test between groups were used. The level of significance was set at 95% (p&lt;0.05).<strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of participants in self-mobilization was 41.20 <u>+</u>5.79 and passive mobilization was 42.87 <u>+</u>4.82. Out of 30 participants, 17(56.66%) were male and 13(43.33%) were females participants. The mean of pain at baseline in experimental group was 4.86± 1.30 and reduced to 2.06 ± 1.09 after 4 weeks of passive mobilization and Hip functions at baseline was 131.73 ± 22.59 and improved to 232.00 ± 19.39. Between the groups comparison of pain and hip functions showing that both techniques were effective in reduction of pain and improving Hip functions but passive mobilization group has was dominant over the self-mobilization p value P =0.00 <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The current study concluded that passive mobilization of sciatic nerve was effective in the management of piriformis syndrome compared to the self-mobilization for improving pain and hip functions. </p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Hip Functioning Pain, Nerve Mobilization, Piriformis Syndrome, Passive Mobilization,Sciatic Nerve, Self-stretching</p> Abdul Salam, Aqsa Khalid , Iqra Waseem , Tahir Mahmood, Wajeeha Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 Abdul Salam, Assistant professor /HOD , Medical Officer , Assistant professor, Senior Lecturer /Physical Therapist, Assistant professor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/114 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EMERGENCE OF URDU SPATIAL PREPOSITIONS TO ASSESS SYNTACTICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN PAKISTANI CHILDREN https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/127 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Urdu syntax is diverse in nature and does not relate to parameters established for English syntax in many ways. Speech-Language Pathologists’ (SLPs) assessments based on Ages of Acquisition (AoA) of spatial prepositions cannot be standardized for Pakistani Urdu speaking children until ages of emergence of these prepositions are determined in this population. <strong>Objective</strong>: to explore ages of acquisition of spatial prepositions in young Pakistani Urdu speaking children. <strong>Methodology: </strong>This cross-sectional survey explored AoA of spatial prepositions in a sample of N=370 (boys= 128, girls=242) young Urdu speaking children aged 24-48 months residing in Islamabad. Urdu prepositions checklist was given to the parents (mothers=242, fathers=32), teachers (n=63) and significant others (n=33), to fill in accordance to spontaneous speech of their children . Data were descriptively analyzed using SPSS version 21.<strong> Results: </strong>Urdu spatial prepositions اوپر /uːpər/ (Up/above/on) and نیچے /niːʧæ/ (down/below/under) were acquired in 24-26 months of age and by 42-48 months these were mastered by 89.3% and 88.6% of within age group participants respectively. Spatial prepositions acquired in 30-35 months were آگے /ɑːɡeɪ/ (in front of), پیچھے /piːʧʰæ/ (behind) and ساتھ /sɑːθ/ (beside) with percentages 67.3%, 56.4% and 72.7% respectively. Preposition درمیان /d̪rmjɒn/ (between) was acquired in 42-48 months with response percentage 52.8%. AoA of preposition بیچ میں /biːtʃ meɪ/ (in the middle of) can be considered as later than 48 months because even in highest age limit group i.e., 42-48 months only 49.3% participants acquired this preposition.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>The findings of current study indicate that acquisition of spatial prepositions follows same order in all children cross-culturally but their age of acquisition can vary according to their locality and language input provided to them.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Age of Acquisition, spatial prepositions, syntax, Urdu</p> Faseeha Shafqat, Nasreen Rafiq Khan, Hannan Adeel, Nasir Khan, Ramsha Haroon Copyright (c) 2022 Faseeha Shafqat, Ramsha Haroon, Nasir Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/127 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF GENDER AND DEGREE OF HEARING LOSS ON SELF ESTEEM IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/139 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hearing impairment is considered as one of the major contributor of drop in low self-esteem of adolescents. Children and adolescents with significant hearing loss have difficulties like communication and social skills in different aspects of their quality of life which later on lead to anxiety, depression and social isolation. <strong>Objective</strong>: To find out the impact of gender and degree of hearing loss in children and adolescents not using hearing aid.<strong> Methodology: </strong>A cross sectional survey was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Total participants were 551 selected between 9-15 years age , with mild and moderate degree of hearing loss with no history of using hearing aid. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used to measure the self-esteem level. The data was analysed through multiple linear regression testing SPSS version 21. <strong>Results: </strong> The mean age of the study participants was 12.38±1.773 year. The degree of hearing loss and the gender were statistically significant predictor {F (df) =157.636(2,548), p&lt;0.001, r<sup>2</sup> = .365} of the self-esteem in hearing impaired children. Hence, the age was not significant predictor on the self-esteem (<em>β</em>=.367, p=.228). <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The self-esteem in the children and adolescents with hearing impairment was affected by gender and degree of hearing loss. Whereas age have no impact on the self-esteem.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Adolescent, children, Hearing impairment, hearing loss, self-esteem.</p> Humaira Shamim Kiani, Nasir Khan, Kashif Ali Shah, Kamran Khan Rana, Ultamish, Ramsha Haroon Copyright (c) 2022 Humaira Shamim Kiani, Hina Salim, Kashif Ali Shah, Kamran Khan Rana, Ramsha Haroon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/139 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE COMPARISON OF PLYOMETRIC AND RESISTANCE WARMUP PROTOCOLS ON THE RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN RECREATIONAL ATHLETES https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/102 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Warm-up prepares the body to withstand the high-intensity exercises and improves the athletic performance and reduces the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Active warm-up is one of the best and commonly used techniques in athletes that can induce a special type of cardiovascular and metabolic changes that can bring prominent change in running performance. <strong>Objective: </strong>To compare resistance and plyometric warm up Protocols in recreational athletes to improve running performance. <strong>Methods: </strong>A randomized clinical trial was conducted at Aman Medical Institute Islamabad. A total n=33 recreational athletes of both genders, having total exercise load less than 5 hours per week, with normal BMI and Must fulfill the 10 minutes’ walk test on treadmill before starting the warm-up were recruited through convenience sampling technique. The sample was randomly assigned through sealed envelope method into Resistance warm up protocol (n=11), plyometric warm up protocol(n=11) and control group(n=11). The running performance was measured with lower limb power, VO<sup>2</sup>max, endurance, fatigue and time of exhaustion. The RCT was registered in national library of medicine. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 23. After checking the normality, kruskal walis test was applied to compare the groups. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the participants were 21.97<u>+</u>1.3 years and BMI were 23.27<u>+</u>1.12 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. There was significant improvement in plyometric group in terms of VO<sup>2</sup>max (p=0.003), rate of perceived exertion (p&lt;0.001), time of exhaustion (p&lt;0.001), fatigue (p=0.002), power p=(.002), endurance (p&lt;0.001) as compared to other groups. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that there was improvement in running performance in plyometric warm up protocol and resistance warm up protocol as compared to control group</p> <p><a name="_Toc63252384"></a><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>: </strong>Lower limb power, Plyometric<strong>, </strong>Resistance warm up, Running performance</p> Tehmina Gul, Aisha Razzaq, Suman Sheraz Copyright (c) 2022 tehmina gul, Aisha Razzaq, Suman Sheraz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://trjournal.org/index.php/TRJ/article/view/102 Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000