The Rehabilitation Journal <p>The Rehabilitation Journal (TRJ) is an international multidisciplinary peer-review journal published biannually in English. TRJ is the official publication of the Health Education Research Foundation (HERF), which is non profit organizaton registered with government of Pakistan under society registration act 1860.</p> <p>The aim of TRJ is to publish articles about all aspects Rehabilitation Sciences and to promote excellence in education, scientific research, clinical practice, health policy, and administration.TRJ publishes two issues in a year and welcomes manuscripts from all over the world in the field of Medical Rehabilitation but not limited to;</p> <ul> <li>Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation</li> <li>Neurological Rehabilitation</li> <li>Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation</li> <li>Sports Rehabilitation</li> <li>PsychosocialRehabilitation</li> <li>Speech and Language Rehabilitation</li> <li>Community Based Rehabilitation</li> </ul> <p>The overall goal of TRJ <em>is</em> to enhance the interrelationship of practice, research, and education to advance the field of Rehabilitation Sciences for the ultimate benefit of the patient and the field.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> (Huraim Ahmed Awan) (Dr Danish Rauf) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 EFFECTS OF FRAGILITY FRACTURE INTEGRATED REHABILITATION MANAGEMENT HIP FRACTURE IN PAKISTANI OLDER ADULTS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective: </strong>to evaluate the effectiveness of fragility Fracture Integrated Rehabilitation Management (FIRM) on older adults of Pakistan after hip fracture surgery. <strong>Methodology:&nbsp; </strong>A one-group pretest–posttest designwas conducted at the National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM), Islamabad from March 2020 to May 2021.. A n=11 participants with age above 55 years, both male and female, with confirming diagnosed cases of hip fracture were included. Every participats receveied 10 sesssions of Fragility Fracture integrated Rehabilitation Management (FIRM) program in two weeks. Data was collected at baseline at 2<sup>nd</sup> day and after 10th session on 15th day, through the KOVAL scale to assess the walking ability, the Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC) to assess the level of independence, the modified Barthel index (MBI) for activities of daily living (ADLs), and quality of life (QoL) was assessed by EQ-5D. Data were analyzed by using SPSS Version 21. <strong>Result: </strong>the mean age 76.45±9.32, of which n=6 (54.6%) were males and n=5(45.4%) were females. after 10th sessions the QoL on EQ-5D, ambulation&nbsp; on FAC and KOVAL scale and the ADL on MBI&nbsp; were significantly improved (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) with large effect size, except for the&nbsp; anxiety domain of EQ5D and subdomains of MBI; Personal hygiene, feeding, Bowel control, bladder control, Wheelchair, and Chair &amp; bed transfer showed no significant change (<em>p&gt;0.05</em>). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;FIRM care is found to be effective in&nbsp; improving the walking ability, functional status, ADLs and quality of life in geraiatric population following a hip fracture surgery</p> Anam Aftab, Shaista Habibullah, Nimra Ilyas Bhutta Copyright (c) 2021 anam Aftab, Shaista Habibullah, Nimra Ilyas Bhutta Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF PILATE TRAINING ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF CRICKETERS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective: </strong>to determine the effectiveness of Pilate training on physical performance of cricket players. <strong>Methodology: </strong>A two-arm, single-centered, randomized control trial was conducted at LFR I8Active Gym I8, Islamabad for time duration of six months from June 2020 to March 2021. The active male cricketers aged between 19-30, who had practiced for at least 2 years and had normal BMI (ranging in between 18.5 to 24.9) were included in the study. The n=20 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria and recruited through non-probability convenient sampling technique and divided in two groups. The experimental group received Pilate training (PT) with conventional training (CT) exercise plan. However, control group received only CT exercise plan. The 30 feet agility shuttle run test, core strength test, endurance test, underarm throw accuracy test, throw-length test and ground fielding test was performed before and after the intervention. The MANCOVA was applied to see the differences in group while controlling the confounding variables. The level of significance was set at 95% CI (<em>p≤0.05</em>). <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of study participants was 23.95±2.7 years, while average BMI was 22.4± 3.79. After running MANCOVA test on combine dependent variables, while controlling BMI and pretest score, statistically significant difference {<em>F</em> (6, 12) = 12.95, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001, ηp<sup>2</sup>= .866} between groups was observed. All variables except endurance fitness (p=0.217), showed significant improvement in cricketer receiving combined conventional training and Pilates training (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that Pilates with conventional training significantly improved physical performance of cricketers.</p> Ramsha Sohail, Armaghan Khalid, Amina Mumtaz, Zainab Qadri, Madiha Shah, Rizwana Butt Copyright (c) 2021 Ramsha Sohail, Rizwana Butt Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF STRETCHING EXERCISES WITH OR WITHOUT BACLOFEN ON SPASTICITY, FLUID INTAKE AND CALORIES INTAKE IN CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objectives: </strong>to find out the effectiveness of stretching exercises and baclofen alone and combined in spastic cerebral palsy children on spasticity, fluid and calorie intake. <strong>Material &amp; Methods: </strong>A single-blinded, randomized control trial was conducted at Allama Iqbal Hospital, and Idrees Teaching Hospital. The participants between 5-15 years, having spasticity score of 2 or more on Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). The participants were randomly divided into three treatment groups i.e. group A received baclofen, group B received stretching and group C received both baclofen and sustained stretching. Data were collected by Performa / Questionnaire, which calculated basic demographics, BMI, fluid and calorie intake, and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). <strong>Results: </strong>The result showed significant difference (p&lt;0.05) among group with large effect size while comparing mean differences of Fluid intake {F(df)=2,57(988.603), η<sup>2 </sup>=0.972, p&lt;0.001} and Calories intake {F(df)= 2,57(166.877), η<sup>2 </sup>=0.854, p&lt;0.001}. While there was no significant difference in mean difference of spasticity {F(df)= 2,57(2.119), p=0.130}. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>baclofen along with stretching exercises significantly improved fluid, calorie intake and spasticity.</p> Muhammad Ahmad, Aleem Liaqat, Nabeela Kanwal, Asima Irshad, Saira Waqqar Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Ahmad, Aleem Liaqat Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF LATISSIMUS DORSI STRETCHING ON FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY RELATED TO CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine effects of latissimus dorsi stretching on functional disability related to chronic low back pain. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A single group pretest-posttest design trial was conducted in NOSIS clinics Mansehra Pakistan. Patients with the age between 20-60 years had chronic mechanical low back pain lasting for 7-12 weeks were included in the study. A total of n=64 randomly divided into experimental and control group, those received stabilization exercises (SE) plus latissimus dorsi stretching (LDS) and stabilization exercises alone respectively. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to determine functional disability. The level of significance was set at 95% CI (<em>p≤0.05</em>). <strong>Results:</strong> A total of n=61 participants participated in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 39.60 ± 10.02 and sitting time was 6.54± 1.23. It was observed that both the experimental group {p&lt;0.001, ɳp<sup>2</sup>=0.934} and control group {<em>p&lt;0.001</em>, ɳp<sup>2</sup>=0.875} significantly improved the ODI score with large effect size after 4 weeks of intervention. However, between the comparison showed significant improvement with large effect size in experimental group as compared to control group, after first week (<em>p&lt;0.001)</em>, and 2nd week (<em>p&lt;0.001)</em> of intervention. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> the combination of spinal stabilization exercises and stretching of latissimus dorsi effective in improving functional disability related to chronic low back pain.</p> Abdul haseeb Bhutta, Danish Rauf, Nimra Ilyas Bhutta, Wahaj Ali, Kinza Haneef Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul haseeb Bhutta Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective</strong>: to determine the effects of physical activity on quality of life among female undergraduate students. <strong>Material &amp; Methods:</strong> A randomized clinical trial was conducted on n=52 female students, after taking approval from higher authorities of the Bilquis Postgraduate College for Women PAF Nur Khan Base Rawalpindi, The inactive female students &gt;1monthbetween 18-25 years were included in the study. The participants were randomly divided into three groups, such as Light Physical Activity (LPA), Moderate Physical Activity (MPA) and Vigorous Physical activity (VPA) group. The short form (SF-36) was used to observe Quality of Life (QOL), among participant at baseline and after six weeks of intervention. The One Way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc was applied on mean differences for comparison. The clinical significance eta squared (<strong><em>η<sup>2</sup>)</em></strong> was used. <strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; The result showed that Role limitation (mental) was significantly improved in vigorous activity group than the light (MD=21.20, d=0.85, 95% CI=0.97 to 43.37) and moderate (MD=23.94, d=0.96 95% CI=4.05 to 43.83) activity group. While social function showed significant improvement in moderate activity group as compared to light (MD=15.30, d=1.01, 95% CI=3.83 to 26.76) activity and vigorous (MD=9.60, d=0.63, 95% CI=1.68 to 20.88) activity group.&nbsp; The pain also showed significant improvement in moderate activity as compared to light (MD=20.32, d=1.09, 95% CI=5.48 to 35.16) and vigorous (MD=21.97, d=1.18, 95% CI=9.67 to 34.26) activity group. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: PA significantly improved QOL of female undergraduate students. It was also found that VPA improves role limitation (emotional) while MPA improves social function and body pain.</p> Hamsa Ashraf, Nabeela Kanwal, Iqra Rizwan, Komal Latif, Ramsha Haroon Copyright (c) 2021 Hamsa Ashraf, Nabeela Kanwal Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 CENTER BASED VERSES TELE-REHABILITATION FOR DIABETES MELLITUS <p style="text-align: justify;">Globally, new trends of practices are incorporating in health care sector, academics as well as in our daily lives to cope with the current population need. It is much needed to develop and implement new sophisticated practice models in rehabilitation to treat the different clinical conditions. Diabetes mellitus is one among the top 10 causes of death, with significant increase of 80% since year 2000<sup>1</sup>. As estimated by International Diabetes Federation worldwide, 425 million people are suffering with diabetes mellitus.<sup>2</sup></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetic neuropathy is one of highly prevalent condition which substantially affects patients by increasing frequency of falls, neuropathic pain and low quality of life (QOL).Diabetic patients suffer with following complaints i.e. Foot ulcers that develops due to peripheral vascular ischemia and poor pressure distribution on plantar surface of foot which increases the risk of fall due to loss of balance and disturbance in gait patterns.<sup>3</sup> Total 20% of foot ulcers need an amputation wherein patients further suffer with secondary complications which in turn builds massive economic burden on health care system.<sup>4</sup></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The rehabilitation combined with diet and medications has proven as an effective method to treat diabetes and its neuropathy symptoms. Supervised conventional center based physical activity training programs are generally in practice to treat this metabolic condition.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Though clinical effectiveness of these programs is established on clinical outcomes, with reduction in mortality rate, despite all the benefits of rehabilitation programs, very low patient attendance is observed in hospital based supervised rehabilitation programs. The regularity in exercise along with dietary intervention and fixed medication monitoring is the key component to manage diabetes. But high drop-out levels negatively affects the proven effectiveness of rehabilitation. There are different aspects for this low level of participation i.e. lack of time, approachability of a program, home bound work or obligations and psychological barriers etc. Therefore, new practice models are essential to improve the rate of participation on regular basis in these exercise program.<sup>5</sup></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Computer based technological incorporation in the field of health is evolving dramatically as a promising tool in improving quality of life cost effectively. It can also help us to achieve WHO goal “to improve access to health care services and professionals”. Tele-rehabilitation may prove effective as part of the rehabilitation program, especially for diabetic patients who fail to participate in conventional rehabilitation center-based programs due to domestic issues. The factors associated with suboptimal participation in rehabilitation at home are less prevalent. In tele-rehabilitation, patients are not bound to visit rehabilitation center or hospital; hence they have the freedom to perform exercise at home. But the limitations in utilization of this approach are: patient assessment and evaluation in a structured manner, monitoring the effect of program on regular basis, suitability of approach for all type of morbidities &amp; severity levels of diabetes and suitable equipment having required features for patients as well as practitioners.<sup>6</sup></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Tele-rehabilitation is a prospective opportunity to treat the diabetic patients through regular monitoring with less drop outs rather than center based approach. However, there is a need to identify the types and severity of diabetic patients for whom this approach is safe and effective. Secondly, it is required to define clinical assessment outcomes which can be monitored and assessed. Incorporation of advanced equipment and relevant operational training is indispensable. Development of Standardized documentation for patient evaluation, intervention and outcomes monitoring is imperative to long term sustainability and improvement of practice. It is equally important to ensure the security and confidentiality of&nbsp; Patient’s personal data and privacy.<sup>7</sup><br><br></p> Saira Waqar Copyright (c) 2021 Saira Waqar Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000