The Rehabilitation Journal 2022-12-31T17:56:54+00:00 Huraim Ahmed Awan Open Journal Systems <p>The Rehabilitation Journal (TRJ) is the official publication of the Health Education Research Foundation (HERF), which is nonprofit organization registered with government of Pakistan under society registration act 1860. The TRJ is an international multidisciplinary peer-review journal published biannually <strong>(Quarterly after December 2021)</strong> in English.</p> <p>The overall goal of TRJ <em>is</em> to enhance the interrelationship of practice, research, and education to advance the field of Rehabilitation Sciences for the ultimate benefit of the patient and the field. The aim of TRJ is to publish articles about different aspects of Rehabilitation Sciences and to promote excellence in education, scientific research, clinical practice, health policy, and administration.</p> <p>TRJ welcomes manuscripts from all over the world in the field of Rehabilitation Sciences but not limited to, <em>physiotherapy, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, orthosis, and prosthesis</em>. We are pleased to receive articles reporting original scientific research, systematic reviews or meta-analyses, brief reports and technical reports.</p> CORRELATION OF SMARTPHONE ADDICTION WITH TEXT NECK SYNDROME DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2022-11-26T17:12:31+00:00 Rafia Farrukh Shamsi Aisha Sadeeqa Asma Afzal Khan Fizah Mahnoor Khan Aruba Saeed Syeda Nayab Sheeraz <p><strong>Background:</strong> Smartphones pervasiveness has captured people with the ability to search for information, communicate more easily, and make our day-to-day jobs easier. On the other hand, excessive smartphone use can also lead to serious musculoskeletal consequences including neck pain and disability. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the correlation of Text-Neck-Syndrome with smartphone addiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. <strong>Methods</strong>: The cross-sectional study was conducted on n=500 participants of both genders between 20 to 30 years olds. The study population were assessed for text next syndrome with Neck disability index, and neck pain on Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Smartphone addiction scale short version (SAS-SV) to find problematic smartphone usage. The spearmen test was used to determine the correlation between the Text neck syndrome and smartphone addiction during Covid-19 pandemic. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants was 22.8±2.47 years. A total of n=418(83.6%) were female and remaining n=82(16.4%) was male participated in the study. The results showed that there is significant mild to moderate positive significant correlation (p&lt;0.05) between individual item and total score of SAS-SV with pain and neck disability. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that the excessive use of smart phone during COVID 19 caused neck pain and related functional impairment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Addiction, neck disability, neck pain, text neck syndrome, VAS</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rafia Farrukh Shamsi, Aisha Sadeeqa, Asma Afzal Khan, Fizah Mahnoor Khan, Aruba Saeed, Syeda Nayab Sheeraz EFFECTS OF COMPELLED BODY WEIGHT SHIFT TECHNIQUE BY USING INSOLE FOR REHABILITATION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC STROKE 2022-11-05T18:39:37+00:00 Usman Farooq Syed Alamdar Hussain Huma Balqias Umair Ahmad Rohail Amir Babar Rijja Haider <p><strong>Background</strong>: Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability worldwide. The stroke survivors usually become complicated with sensor and motor problems which lead to compromised walking ability and functional limitation, after stroke occurrence the recovery of walking ability is considered one of the vital outcomes of stroke rehabilitation. <strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the effects of Compelled Body Weight Shift (CBWS) technique by using insole in the individuals with chronic stroke. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>: A randomized control trial (NCT04479774) was conducted from March 2020 to August 2020. The data was collected through non probability convenient sampling technique. The duration of the study was 6 months after the approval from Rehman medical Institute and Northwest General Hospital. A total n=27 were divided into control n=14 which received conventional physical therapy (CPT) and experimental group n=13 additionally received compelled body weight shift (CBWS) technique using insole shoe lift of 0.6 cm thickness. The tinetti (POMA) for balance and gait, 10 Meter walk test for gait parameters and analogue weight scale for weight distribution on both limbs were assessed at the baseline and after 6<sup>th</sup> week of intervention. <strong>Results</strong>: The mean age and BMI of the study participants was 49.84±6.18 years and 34±5.13 kg/m<sup>2</sup> respectively. Between the groups analyses showed that all the domains showed no significant difference, but step length showed significant difference (p&lt;0.001) after 6<sup>th</sup> week. The stride length showed significant difference after 3<sup>rd</sup> week and 6th week (p&lt;0.01). while the cadence showed significant difference after 3<sup>rd</sup> week only (p=0.02) and no significant difference was observed after the 6<sup>th</sup> week of the treatment. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: There was slight improvement in cadence, stride length and step length after the treatment. Furthermore, it is evident that CBWS is effective for improving gait parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><em>: </em>Balance, gait training, physical therapy, stroke, stroke rehabilitation.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Usman Farooq, Syed Alamdar Hussain, Huma Balqias, Umair Ahmad, Rohail Amir Babar, Rijja Haider AUGMENTED EFFECTS OF SENSORY INTEGRATION THERAPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY ON MOVEMENT AND BALANCE ISSUES IN CEREBRAL PALSY: A PILOT STUDY 2022-09-20T16:55:26+00:00 Sannia Batool Aruba Saeed Misbah Ghous Kiran Khushnood <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cerebral Palsy (CP) causes many sensory and motor deficits in children which may lead to deterioration of their functional activities and daily life. Effective interventions are required to be worked on, which can improve the movement status of such subjects. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the effects of sensory integration therapy (SIT) in addition with virtual reality (VR) and Conventional Physical Therapy in subjects with cerebral palsy. <strong>Methods: </strong>A Pilot randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from July to December 2019. The n=26 subjects were recruited after fulfilment of inclusion criteria; male and female diagnosed spastic CP subjectswith age 5-12 years, gross motor function classification system (GMFC) level I-II, can independently walk ≥ 5 meters, spasticity of lower limb &lt;3 on Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), able to understand commands and play gamesThe subjects were randomly divided into group A, receiving sensory integration therapy (SIT) in addition to virtual reality (VR) and conventional physical therapy CPT), while group B received only virtual reality (VR) and conventional physical therapy CPT). The interventions were given for 6 weeks with assessments at baseline, 3<sup>rd</sup> and 6<sup>th</sup> weeks. The outcome measures were gross motor function measurement (GMFM) for assessment of gross motor functions, pediatric balance scale (PBS) for assessment of balance in children and 2-minute walk test (2MWT) for mobility. The analysis was done via SPSS 21 and ANOVA test was applied. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the study participants was 7.52±2.25 years. The balance Scale and 2-minute walk test showed significant interaction (p&lt;0.001) between intervention and time. Between group analyses done by one way ANOVA, the assessment at 3rd and 6 weeks has shown significant difference (p&lt;0.001) for GMFM standing, walking/running and total along with PBS and 2 MWT. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Augmentation of sensory integration therapy with virtual reality has significant effects on improving gross motor functions, balance and mobility in cerebral palsy as compared to virtual reality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Balance, cerebral palsy, gross motor functions, virtual reality, sensory integration therapy</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sannia Batool, Aruba Saeed, Misbah Ghous, Kiran Khushnood IMPACT OF DEATH ANXIETY ON RESILIENCE AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE: ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AS MODERATOR 2022-11-09T17:42:46+00:00 Mariyam Ikram Rabia Mushtaq Saima Waqar Muhammad Manan Haider Khan <p><strong>Background:</strong> There are so many cases report with death anxiety in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Death anxiety leads toward various types of psychopathologies as well as numerous disorders. Excessive death anxiety also affects the resilience level of CKD patients. <strong>Objective:</strong> to find out the impact of death anxiety on resilience among patients with CKD moderating role of social support. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This study design was Correlational. The sample consists of n=150 patients with CKD. Data was collected from different hospitals of Multan, Bahawalpur, and Lodhran. The CKD patients with age range from 15 to 25 years diagnosed with stage 3-5 of chronic kidney diseases on hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation were included in the study. The Death Anxiety scale-Urdu Child and Youth Resilience Measure- Urdu and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Version-12 was used for data collection. <strong>Results: </strong>The correlation analysis among study variables shows that death anxiety has significant negative correlation (p&lt;0.01) with resilience (r=-0.55). The overall model explained the 44% of variance with F=57.08(2,147), p&lt;0.001 for resilience, whereas in step 2, social support was found significant predictor (R<sup>2</sup>=41, B=0.39, <em>β</em>=0.64, p&lt;0.01) of resilience and moderator between death anxiety and resilience. From step 3, death anxiety was similarly established significant negative predictor (R<sup>2</sup>=47, B=-0.24, <em>β</em>=-0.33, p&lt;0.01) of resilience. Additionally, in step 4, the interaction of death anxiety and social support was found significant for resilience (R<sup>2</sup>= 49, B=-0.01, <em>β</em>=-0.56, p&lt;0.01. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> there is a negative relationship between death anxiety and resilience. Social support significantly moderates the relationship between death anxiety and resilience.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Chronic kidney disease, </em>death anxiety, resilience, social support.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mariyam Ikram , Rabia Mushtaq , Saima Waqar, Muhammad Manan Haider Khan IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF POST FACILITATION STRETCH TECHNIQUE ON STRAIGHT LEG RAISE WITH/WITHOUT THORACO-LUMBER DIRECT MYOFACIAL RELEASE IN NON-SYMPTOMATIC ADULTS 2022-12-27T07:01:28+00:00 Ali Raza Kiran Haq Jawwad Naveed Sajjad Ali Iqra Rizwan <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hamstring tightness is a condition which if it is remaining untreated it could be related later on to the posture imbalance and movement restriction. There are many techniques to increase the elasticity of hamstrings. Post facilitation stretching (PFS) along with thoraco-lumbar direct myofascial release (MFR) technique is emerging as a novel therapy for improving hamstring muscle length. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the immediate effects of post facilitation stretching technique on SLR with/without thoraco-lumber direct myofascial release on straight leg raise among non-symptomatic adults. <strong>Methods: </strong>A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted at FIMS College of rehabilitation Abbottabad Pakistan after approval from HOD. A total of n=24 non symptomatic adults were recruited through non-probability convenient sampling technique. The inclusion criteria were non symptomatic adults with tight hamstrings, age group 18 to 40 years, normal healthy adults, both gender groups, SLR (passive) of 80° degree or less, finger floor distance of 5 cm or more. The participants were than randomly divided into two control group (n=12) and experimental group (n=12). The post facilitation stretch technique was applied in both groups, but experimental group additionally received thoraco-lumber direct myofascial release technique as well. To assess the total mobility of the lumbo-pelvic region and hamstring elasticity fingertip to floor distance was measured and straight leg raise test with the help of goniometer. The data was collected at the baseline and immediately after session. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the study participant was 23.41±2.31 years. The pre-post analysis showed that right and left straight leg raise (SLR) as well as fingertip floor distance were significantly (p&lt;0.001) improved immediately after the intervention with large effect size<strong>. </strong>When compared both groups immediately after the intervention, experimental group which received myofascial release in addition post facilitation stretch showed more significant improvement with large effect size in right &amp; left SLR and fingertip floor distance (p&lt;0.001) as compared to control group where only post facilitation stretch technique was applied. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The present study concluded that post facilitation stretch along with the thoracolumbar direct myofascial release technique significantly improve hamstrings flexibility. The efficacy of thoracolumbar direct myofascial release has contributed in increasing SLR and Finger Floor Distance tests parameters.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: hamstring, muscle length, myofascial release, muscle energy technique, post facilitation stretch, stretching exercises.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ali Raza, Kiran Haq, Jawwad Naveed, Sajjad Ali, Iqra Rizwan EFFECT OF KNEE JOINT MOBILIZATION ON HAMSTRING MUSCLE LENGTH IN PATIENT WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS 2022-11-13T16:54:09+00:00 Fareeha Sherazi Saira Waqar Maria Khalid Kashmala Saleem Sania Khawar Kiani Momena Shahzad <p><strong>Background</strong>: Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease of old age which causes difficulty in activities of daily living. The hamstring muscle tightness is often associated with grade 1 and 2 knee osteoarthritis. The treatment of knee osteoarthritis includes stretches, strengthening and mobilization of joints, these may also improve the hamstring muscle length. <strong>Objectives</strong>: To determine effects of knee Joint Mobilization on hamstring muscle length in Patient with Knee Osteoarthritis. <strong>Methodology</strong>: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted at Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2020 to December 2020. A total of n=44 participants were included male and female of age between 40-65 years after screening for pain more than 3 on Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) for more than 3 months, 20% hamstring length shortening in degree, grade I &amp;II osteoarthritis according to Kellgren and Lawrence Classification system also satisfying American College of Rheumatology for clinical classification of Knee OA. The Hamstring screening was done using Active knee extension test (AKET), 90-90 test and sit and reach test. They were randomly allocated in group A received post isometric relaxation (PIR) and group B Kaltenborn mobilization and traction (KM+KT) group. Each participant received three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The data was collected at baseline, post 1<sup>st</sup> session and after 12<sup>th</sup> session by using Numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) for pain, Active knee extension test (AKET) for hamstring flexibility and WOMAC scale for functional disability. Data analysis was done through SPSS-21. <strong>Result</strong>: The mean age of the study participants was 48.15±9.70 years. Both groups have shown statistically and clinically (p&lt;0.001) improvement regarding pain, muscle length and functional disability after treatment duration till 12<sup>th</sup> session. When comparing the groups KM+KT group showed more significant improvement with large effect size (p&lt;0.05) regarding pain, hamstring muscle length and functional disability as compared to PIR group at the end of 12<sup>th</sup> session. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Kaltenborn mobilization and traction group has shown significant improvement in pain, muscle length and functional status as compared to the PIR group.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Active knee extension test, Hamstring flexibility, Kaltenborn mobilization, Muscle length, Osteoarthritis.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fareeha Sherazi, Saira Waqar, Maria Khalid, Kashmala Saleem, Sania Khawar Kiani , Momena Shahzad